There are often so many tiny life-hacks that go undiscovered, unsung and unused. Sometimes we stumble upon one that makes so much sense, and our lives so much easier, we usually end up wondering, “Gosh, why didn’t I think of that?” or “I never thought about this in this way” or “I didn’t know this was even possible!!”

We’re going to periodically bring together some of these Did-You-Know moments geared to help tap in to the potential presented by the technologies we use!

Today, we stumbled upon , Superintendent at Ottawa Catholic School Board, who has put this useful little slideshow on Google Tips! Apart from pointing out fun and new ways to maximize our use of Google’s myriad functionalities, you can also test yourself on Google trivia.

Have a go at it!


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Childhood: That temporal human experience, existing in the aftermath of birth, preceding puberty’s recalibrations. It is that time when the twin forces of nature and nurture embark upon marking inroads, busy in the business of forming bodies and minds. This is a period in the human life cycle that witnesses the fastest absorption of knowledge.

Childhood is an opportunity. Childhood should be seized! It is marked by an appetite for knowing, borne out of insatiable curiosity. If this inclination is allowed to simply exist, let alone be actively encouraged, the foundations of creativity can be laid without much effort. To question the status quo is the genesis of creativity.

Our hope for this day is that we take a moment to recognize the fantastical phase that is childhood, and take a moment to cherish young learners in their pursuit of knowledge.

Every day presents a new moment of learning. Why, every day is “children’s day”!

Masti Out!


Several team members at InOpen attended a public lecture at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai (TISS), and here’s what they had to say!

About the speaker

The public lecture titled “ Right to Education- Where do we go from here ?” was conducted by Dr. Archana Mehendale, who is a Visiting Associate Professor at the School of Education, TISS. Revered in her field, Dr. Mehendale has been extensively involved in policy discussions with the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD). Her areas of research have included the implementation of specific provisions under RTE such as monitoring child rights, regulation of private schools, and the inclusion of marginalised children. She has worked in the field of Child Rights for over 15 years now, and was a member of the working Group established by National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR).


What was the Right To Education Act of 2009? Retrieved from

Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act, (shortened to RTE) is an act of parliament which was enacted on 4 August 2009, and came into force on 1 April 2010. It guarantees to provide Free and Compulsory Education to all children between the age group of 6-14 years.


Overview of the talk:

Over the past few years, the 86th Constitutional Amendment (a precursor to RTE) and the RTE have together dominated various policy decisions made with regards to education. As with most policies, whereas the content and intent of the policy document is often very promising, it is in the implementation where the system often falters. Dr. Mehendale provided an ‘insider’s’  perspective on the key concerns related to the application of RTE. She explored the manner and modes of its operationalisation and interpretations through the lens of child rights, privatization of schools, and quality of Education. The lecture was also engaging in its discussion of new developments that have been taking place at the policy level, and explored how we ought to reconceptualize the architecture of RTE given the flux of changes experienced in this sector.

The speaker gave us a brief idea about the history of events that led to enactment of Right to Education Act. References were made to Unnikrishnan Judgement, 86th constitutional Amendment, and Article 21 A.

According to Dr.Mehendale, RTE has both reinforced and diluted directives that have existed across a number of existing policies. For example, it has positively reinforced the system of Continuous and Comprehensive Education (CCE), formally introduced in the National Policy on Education (NPE) of 1986. Other policy alignment can be seen in the sections against corporal punishment, and not allowing teachers to take private tuition classes.

In contrast, there are cases where the RTE has worsened what has previously existed. For instance, formal recognition of a school requires an ‘essentiality certificate’ which ensures that the school in question is in fact going to serve public interest. An essentiality certificate is not required by the RTE. Dr. Mehendale went on to present several anecdotes that exemplified the more disappointing aspects, such as the miserable state of various committees, and how the Government is not ready to constitute committees which actually monitor the implementation of RTE. In addition, there appears to be a federal disconnect, wherein there is great disparity in how different states are implementing this the RTE.

The speaker left us with the following vision/solutions to the key issues arising in the implementation of RTE:

1) We need a unified vision.
We need to seriously consider and answer for ourselves important questions related to what should children do, at what and up to what age children should attend school, who is eligible to be the teacher, and all such questions that bring us to poke and prod at the assumed axioms.

2) Strengthening Federal relations (Center-State Relations)

3) Pay attention to Schools
At the end of the day, no matter what the purple prose in our policies, change is really borne out of action at the grass-roots level. School management and leadership, as well as the teachers, play a major role in mediating the policies, and ultimately determine how the policy gets translated to action.


Editor’s note: For us at InOpen, these are questions and thoughts that unavoidable. If we are to bring meaningful changes in the way we conduct computer science education, there needs to be a paradigm shift int he way we prioritize our educational values. Our values as a nation are reflected in our policies. The call to action is to think critically about the concerns about  The call to action is to equip ourselves with the information, and then formulate an opinion on the direction in which we are headed. Are we better or worse of, and how? With these thoughts in mind, we urge you to educate yourself further on the RTE! You are invited to explore the Department of School Education & Literacy page, as well as these additional resources on knowing the RTE and discussion on RTE (UNICEF).


 ‘Pedagogy is never innocent. It is a medium that carries its own message’ – Jerome Bruner, The Culture of Education (1996)

An eminent psychologist and an individual who made profound contributions to the field of (western-borne) education, Bruner was onto something vital. Whereas, one of the pillars was that of developing quality content (the “what”), the equally crucial column is indeed the manner in which academic matter is conveyed and experienced. The style and method that educators adopt are necessarily the product of a conscious choice – a message that points to the values that govern a given educator. That is to say, “How one conceives of education…is a function of how one conceives of the culture and its aims, professed and otherwise.” (Bruner, 1996) And so, once the course of content was ascertained, the Computer Masti Program set out to weave into the base syllabus a unique combination of characteristics designed to provide learners a contextual learning environment. This was integral, given that the goal was not of the former ilk, i.e. impersonal transfer of information. Masti is means Fun in several Indian languages, and it is this spirit that guided the instructional design and methodology when in development!

In order to give learners an opportunity to develop life skills, the Computer Masti way emphasises the need to first appreciate the basic principle or rationale that governs a new idea. For example, simply learning that input and output devices exist and being able to rattle of some examples is not sufficient. Rather, the learner ought to be able to grasp the underlying concept of “in”–> process –> ”out”, and be able to provide an instance where this may occur in real life. Say, hanging out with Brother and making fresh lime juice: is there a parallel that can be drawn in what constitutes the same cause-and-effect represented in input and output devices? Ensuring that the learner is able to internalise well enough to apply themselves in real life is really what this is all about. This idea pervades the entire program in that the focus is on first establishing core conceptual understanding upon which software application skills are based.

If applying what one knows outside the learning space is what this is really all about, then it seems self evident that a simulation of those “real” contexts be employed. In a program such as Computer Masti, computer science is explored through the lens of peers (Tejas and Jyoti) in the form of a narrative that sets the stage for a conversation. Through this medium, concepts unfold in an organic way, subject to the “real” needs of the characters. The presence of a guide-by-the-side character (Moz) ensures that learning takes place in a ‘scaffolded’ manner (another Brunerism!), having created a safe space where asking questions is highly valued. The Computer Masti way draws from the constructivist tradition, and holds in high stead this combination of guided-enquiry based learning and the integration of themes from the real world known to a learner. This relates to all spaces outside of the computer science learning space, and therefore draws equally from themes first explored by learners in other disciplines.

A combined focus on basic information, broadening the scope of core concepts to cover and transcend the usual suspects of a “computer education” (utilitarian application skills) through a constructivist approach that is informed by the local context is a unique proposition indeed. At the end, bringing the masti (fun) in learning is as satisfying as it is imperative to keeping the learner interested and moved to keep learning!

Our previous post discussed the appeal of computer science as a vehicle to impart life skills, resulting in an ICT education that transcends literacy. In the journey towards greater relevance of education as we know it, a key pillar that furthers this goal is what we teach. That is to say, what the concepts and skills to be explored at the different stages of learning will be, what the scope of coverage is within a given timeframe, and what overall trajectory the educational experience will take. It also relates to the underlying mission statement of the endeavour. Is it to conduct an impersonal transfer of information? Or is there a loftier goal, to inculcate a love for learning, perhaps? Answers to these questions help to inform the important aspects of content development and instructional design, ultimately leading towards a “what” that is of superior quality by nature of being tailored to the needs of a paradigm.

The present paradigm demands of learners an ability to simultaneously apply knowledge and rationale, along with an appreciation for healthy collaboration. The much talked of ‘21st Century’ skills have captured popular imagination in grand fashion, primarily because they are in fact imperative (albeit with varying weights) to whatever discipline one chooses to pursue today. It is with this aim, to respond to these demands, that we begin charting out a course. It seems simple enough to ‘go by the available syllabus.’ In India, schools and educators tend to defer to existing publications, and albeit they may tweak them slightly to suit their needs, they look to the tables of content as prescriptions of “what should we cover?”

Consider if we were given the opportunity to begin on a new slate, and create a whole new curriculum? This seems an entirely exciting prospect, especially when one finds from extensive research that there may well be best practices out there, the combination of which is yet to be brought together to form an elevated computer science program. Such was the beginning of the Computer Masti program. Content was ascertained based on deliberation about successes around the world, and an exploration of the development cycle of a learner.  Seeing as the programs targets the K-12 demographic, special care was taken to be unequivocally intentional about the trajectory that the course material took.

In a previous post, we established how the Computer Masti (CM) program endorses an engagement of computer science and not merely computer literacy. Basic functions and fundamentals of computers and software applications are enhanced by the development of thinking skills, which elevate knowledge to a force for agency and fluent problem-solving. (See post on thinking skills.) A special aspect of the curriculum is the introduction of computer programming to a learner rather early in the CM experience, two to three years into the program!

The spirit of holistic development recommends that a learner be encouraged to become conscious of their actions and decisions. On average, an individual is given to balking at a question which asks after the frequency of dental care; but of course the answer is daily, don’t be silly! Now pose a similar query asking after care taken to rest any of the muscles used during the course of ICT activities; *crickets*.  The question we ought to ponder is this: what consequences do our actions wreak, not just on our bodies, but also on our privacy and safety, and on the integrity of intellectual property? In a paradigm where fast is better, ‘access now’ is seen as an entitlement, and being glued to a device is rather the norm than outlier, it behooves a computer science academic program to address the need to develop keen awareness about the consequences of one’s choices.

That the quality of content being disbursed across young minds is of paramount importance cannot be understated. If we are what we consume, then content indeed ought to be the king.

That computer technology is here to stay is an understatement, for it pervades all aspects of our lives, not the least of which is education. Whereas in so-called developed countries access to technology and the involvement of ICT in education is gradually becoming the norm, others have been slower in comparison. Emerging economies like India are currently carving inroads in the movement from computer literacy towards ICT-integrated learning. The former relates to ICT as being the core area of knowledge, vis-à-vis the latter presents ICT as a framework upon which other areas of knowledge are explored and learned. Note that an important necessity for this move is the existence of quality digital instructional material, of which there is a dearth, let alone individuals who are adequately trained to incorporate technology in the teaching learning process. To expand the body of materials available today to a breadth of consequence will require a sizable army of contributors who will be able to research and create meaningfully. The prerequisite in the march towards computer enabled learning is thus a focus on getting digital infrastructure in place, and to establish digital fluency.

It is not uncommon across the globe to encounter the buzzwords du jour of the education sector. Favorites have related to the development of 21st century skills; critical thinking skills, communication, collaboration and creativity. These are life skills that equip students with the agency to tackle a variety of scenarios. In the process of garnering the basic functions of application software and tools (computer literacy), the life skills in question allow the student to transcend into a realm of computer fluency: an ability to analyse, apply and rework their knowledge of the tools to suit the needs of a solution. Yet, most school subjects remain marks-oriented, often leaving little to no room for the development of this skill set.

Enter Computer Science. As a subject and discipline, computer science represents an opportunity to incorporate the nurturing of these skills. Critical thinking can be primed through an enactment of choices inherent in step wise thinking, problem solving skills, and multiple representations of data. Collaboration and communication skills, through group activities that facilitate knowledge sharing, coupled with ICT tools such as multimedia presentation, online content sharing and real time interaction with others across locations. Creativity is visited at every stage through activities that necessitate original thought, using the tools of digital story-telling and multimedia-based programming to express said originality. The questions to ask are: Are students engaged in actions that go beyond given texts? Are they given opportunities to practice these thinking skills?

Imparting life skills through computer science is immediately appealing, and is in theory a no-brainer! However, in practice, if efforts and effectiveness are to remain sustained, there is a need for the introduction of relevant policies that endorse and enforce such standards to incorporate life skills in computer education at the school level.

Often in the absence of said official policies, individuals and entities take it upon themselves to fill the gaps in services that would benefit the polity. The development of the Computer Masti program exemplifies this spirit of “be the change you wish to see in the world!” It is a pioneering effort to impart life skills (as such as they have been outlined here) though the medium of school level computer science, and is unique in its open commitment to facilitating an educational trajectory that truly results in more: Computer Literacy –> Thinking Fluency –> Power of Agency.

The journey has begun.

Last month, a contingent from our academic team attended the LEAD 2014 conference in Mumbai. Education Development Managers (EDMs) Shanti Davedu, Nishant Lodha, Surbhi Nagpal, Saman Siddiqui and Pem ZAS made their way to SNDT University for the two-day event organized by Leadership Boulevard (LB). This is the first year of this conference by the LB team. Here’s a look at some of the events of impact that left our EDMs recharged and raring to go!

EDMs:  Hi-Five for Exploring Future Learning!

EDMs: Hi-Five for Exploring Future Learning!

LEAD-Leadership in Education and Development is a forum for all stakeholders in education to meet at a common platform to posit important questions and discuss pressing matters within the field of education. Attendees included school leaders, educationalists, education service providers, teachers, and most importantly students!  The overarching goal was to bring motivated minds together to come up with action items and solutions to these problems.

LB Founder Sumeet Yashpal Mehta kickstarted the first keynote with these three rousing questions, which according to Mehta affect the very purpose of education:

1) What is worth learning for the future?

                                            2) Who are the future learners?

                                                                     3) How can we enable this learning?



“The first and overarching question got me thinking. Why not remove unnecessary things that the students have to just cram up for namesake? Why not just keep what actually matters to the students? The earmarks for deciding what is worth learning are insight, action, ethics and opportunity. For example, instead of learning that the first war of Independence was started with the Revolt of 1957 and then memorise all related names and dates, the teaching can focus more upon creating and expanding the perspectives in students. What are the various reasons that that lead to wars in general? Why are wars fought? Are there no alternatives to resolve issues? And once the students come to form a perspective on a topic, they could be asked to ponder the nature of insight as a guide in our every day actions.”


The plenary was then sorted into Work Groups based on the part they playedLEAD2014 action in education: school leadership; faculty; students; parents; education professionals. InOpeners fell into the latter category, and were so joined by representatives from a range of organizations: White Collar Hippie, India School Leadership Institute, Teach For India, Skilldom, Zee learning, Writer’s Barn, Save the Children Program, Zaya, Education City, Shirsha.

“The workshops were meant to generate solutions to problems stated in the keynote addresses. We were also joined by an amazing network of experts in a variety of domains, including sex education, clinical psychology, image consultancy, and arts therapy!” – Nishant

“It was amazing to see how people from a varied range of interests all want to achieve a common goal!” – Shanti


The second day’s keynote address by Melvin Freestone underscored the need for a transformation on multiple levels. Learning has to be transformed from being instructional to creation of knowledge, from learners being merely consumers to learners embracing the role of the producer, from curriculum being fixed by a teacher to personalisation by choice!



One of the highlights of the conference was the participation of young adults from the Akansha Foundation Service learning program. They shared how despite coming from poor community, they overcame all obstacles and are pursuing their Bachelors’ degree, and are giving back to the society by volunteering to teach students like themselves during their free time

“It was an altogether different experience! This was a reflective journey where thoughts, ideas and actions were all derived from the participants themselves. The encouragement and support from the faculty members inspired us to put our ideas into action at our own individual level.” – Surbhi


Q-for-U: Two words/phrases that describe your last thoughts as you walked away from the experience?




 “Refreshed and Renewed!” – Pem

“Celebrate the failure. Relearning.” – Saman



“Reflective. Energetic.” – Surbhi

“Relearning. Collaborating.” – Nishant



*Thanks to our fantastic EDMs for sharing their experience with the rest of the team!*

Mars by MOM  (courtesy

Mars by MOM, courtesy

Mangalyaan snuck into a comfortable orbit around Mars, and a nation came alive. This was a feat of fantastic precision, generating great pride in the hearts of millions. So precise were the underlying calculations, so daring in expectation, so sublime in execution that a senior scientist associated with the mission likened it to “hitting a golf ball from Bangalore to London, and getting it into the hole in one go.” The array of reactions to this achievement has spanned across jingoistic pride, lively optimism for a new future, a sense of vindication for the space agency and its efforts, and yet, through it all, an unmistakable timbre of surprise! It is this last piece that warrants special attention. Closer inspection suggests either a lack of public knowledge of current projects and advances, or reveals a decidedly low opinion of aggregate national ability that may have translated to a general disinterest in tracking such stories outside of a newsflash. It may not be wholly inaccurate to claim that the average citizen does not expect the nation to engineer scientific or academic achievements, let alone be at the frontier. In a significant way, this perception has its roots in a culture of creativity that relies on rote and reproduction; a culture wherein ‘creations’ are but shallow facsimiles, unable to reflect the rigor or audacity that is characteristic of pioneering efforts. If creativity is the source of solutions and progress, it becomes imperative to begin cultivating an atmosphere that stymies the urge to churn half-hearted work out out of sheer obligation, and instead develop one that proactively incentivizes integrity.

The seeds of a culture of creativity are sown at the earliest known moments of learning. Humans, whether in formal, informal or non-formal educational settings, are constantly learning. Exposed to an unending array of new and old stimuli, we learn through an assimilation of pattern and logic. We internalize portions of the extant world bank of knowledge, then springboard from there, adding new insights and dimensions, ultimately leading to the addition of new knowledge to the kitty. It makes sense that at the very early stages, we are rather more involved in the passive receipt of information, as we amass a wealth of building blocks in language, computation and heretofore established truths. Even at that stage, a seed can be as simple as conveying to a young child that her artwork does not conform to coloring within the lines. Now, albeit attention to the lines does hold value in that it represents the tuning of motor-skills, what is problematic is the likelihood of a teacher insisting that the child is “wrong” for not following suit. Such messaging of singular correctness sets the tone for a constricted educational journey.

Given that education is more a process than a phase, the academic habits imbibed at the formative stages of learning can vastly affect the manner in which a learner engages with new ideas and material in all the years to follow. When student ‘creations’ are assessed purely on, say, punctuality, completion and an unchecked adherence to given texts and sources, this sets a precedent that can have adverse ramifications for two important matters- 1) healthy pride in one’s own ability and work, and 2) the lack of appreciation for the history and efforts underlying the source material.




Extracting source content for reference is fairly routine in the creative process. Academic and artistic need along with personal interest continue to remain motivators for research and exploration, only now the avenues available to a seeker are more sophisticated and user-friendly. The current paradigm bears that education is shifting in favor of digitizing components of the teaching-learning process. Wherever possible, source materials are undergoing a translocation from analog libraries to an unassumingly vast “online” database, access to which lies but a click away. Whether it is a teenager attempting to collect materials for her class project, or a PhD candidate cross-referencing cited works, the Internet has come to represent quick and easy access to (largely) free to low-cost content. Further enhanced by said ease and speed of access, the playing field is thus rife with opportunity to parade another’s work as a personal original, or fail to give credit when and where it is due. At a more fundamental and individual level, there appears to be an inexplicable trend to borrow even simple items, despite not being in one’s best interest to do so.

For instance, consider the especially comical case of organizations opting to use existing web images to populate their web pages in the hope of displaying their team at work. The only catch is that the images depict a swathe of people who look nothing at all like the organization’s diverse partners or beneficiaries! This particular scenario fairly begs this question: Was it really that difficult to take a picture of real employees in action, say, for the “what we do” section?

These may appear to be negligible “oversights” in the grand scheme, but they are symptomatic of a larger trend, of complacence and resignation within a creative culture. This is characterized by a growing tendency to take content for granted, underscoring a disconnect between the creators and the consumers. Surely, an appreciation for the struggles and satisfaction of creative process as experienced personally would translate to the ability to grant another the courtesy of similar acknowledgment? On the one hand, the ethics of intellectual property use and plagiarism are often deliberated to simply be a relatively innocuous matter of  failure at digital etiquette, requiring but a reprimand perhaps, whereas on the other hand, consequences emerge from the harsh and legal aspects of the transgressions.

Here is a new proposition: Rather than being seen only as matter to be resolved by punitive action, plagiarism should be taken seriously as an indicator of underlying sociological and pedagogical issues. Is it an honest lack of interest or joy in the pursuit of creation in a particular field? Could it be the result of ignorance? How did this cast come to be? The origins are not fully clear. It behooves us to wonder at the root cause of the urge to pilfer, or otherwise we must reconcile with the reality that rallying for punitive action does nothing to change status quo, addressing merely the superficial symptoms.

Mangalyaan’s success has underscored in a massively heartening way that academic independence yet thrives on the subcontinent. The question is how then do we take a page out of this success, and propagate the basic principles of creativity against the backdrop of increasingly digital nations? The onus falls squarely on today’s education providers. They are set to play an integral role in the process of laying a foundation highlighting the nature of the Internet within the context of the origin (of content), the various types and voluntary degrees of ownership, plagiarism and its consequences, and best practices in research etiquette. Demystifying these elements as early in the learning curve as possible can very easily make all the difference in the attempt to foster a can-do attitude, pride in indigenous creativity, and an ability to use existing materials critically. Educational programs need to take the initiative to create curricula that weave these important topics into its core. (Computer Masti is an example of one such holistic program that has achieved success across India.)

Aside: At a time when the digital globe is currently grappling with new finagled issues of the paradigm, a strong foundational grasp of the underlying concepts at work also affords digital natives a nuanced take on the dilemmas du jour, e.g. on open source versus financial sustainability of the creative process, on piracy, on net neutrality, on user privilege based on IP address, gender, socio-economic ‘categories’, and so forth. An authentic creative culture is as much dependent on the way individuals value their work, as it is dependent on the trappings of the playing field itself. As we engage in the critique of solutions and policies, it is imperative that we encourage young learners to use the foundation as a springboard to formulate and articulate opinions. If not, we may well unwittingly sentence the best ideas to oblivion.